Anafîlaksi ve akut allerjik reaksiyonlar

  • Cüneyt Ayrık
  • Murat Özsaraç
  • Özgür Karcıoğlu
  • Aslıhan Yürüktümen
  • Bülent Erbil
  • Bülent Erdur

Eurasian J Emerg Med 2004;3(3):30-34

Anaphylaxis is a true emergency which should be managed expediently. It is the most severe form of the life-threatening systemic allergic reactions.

A history of encounter with the specific antigen and previous such event are the factors that increase the risk of anaphylaxis. More than a hundred victims die every year in the United States. Antibiotics (penicillin etc) and radiocontrast media are the most common causative agents in severe reactions. Signs and symptoms generally follow exposure within several hours. One half of all deaths due to anaphylaxis occur in the first hour. Death is due to respiratory compromise in seventy percent while one fourth is explained by cardiovascular causes.

The patient should immediately be cleaned off the causative agent, if any. Airway safety always bears the top priority to check and intervene. Adrenaline, fluid resuscitation and oxygen constitute the first line treatments, while antihistamines, corticosteroids, glukagon, albuterol and aminophyllin are the secondary or 'refractory' choices. The clinicians should always bear in mind that a 'simple1 or localized urticaria can as well progress to a fullblown anaphylaxis which may also result in demise of the patient.

Keywords: Anaphylaxis, emergency department, treatment